Brazil is the largest country in South America, it is the world’s fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 190 million people and the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas.
Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana, on the northwest by Colombia, on the west by Bolivia and Peru, on the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay. It borders with all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile.
Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to United Kingdom with Portugal and Algarves. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese Kingdom was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal. The independence from Portugal was achieved in 1822. Initially independent as the Empire of Brazil, the country has been a republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified. Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Federal Republic. The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities.
The Brazilian economy is the world’s eighth largest economy by nominal GDP and the seventh largest by purchasing power parity. Brazil is one of the world’s fastest growing major economies. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, CPLP, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, Mercosul and the Union of South American Nations and is one of the BRIC Countries.
The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rain forests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.
The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation’s bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.
Brazilian major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.
Capital – Brasília
Largest city – São Paulo
Official language – Portuguese
Area – 8,514,877 km2 (5th) 3,287,597 sq mi
Currency – Real (R$) (BRL)
Time zone – BRT (UTC-2 to -4)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code – BR
Internet TLD – .br
Calling code – +55
Government website – http://www.brasil.gov.br/?set_language=en
Gross Domestic Product (10^9 USD)
Real Growth Rate (%)
Gross National Income per capita (USD) in PPP
Inflation – annual average (%)
Unemployment rate (%)
Imports (10^6 USD)
Exports (10^6 USD)
Exchange rate to the USD
External debt (10^9 USD)
External help per capita (USD)
Sources: World Bank
Isto é dinheiro
ABN Agência Brasileira de Notícias
Câmara Brasil-China de Desenvolvimento Econômico
Câmara de Comércio e Indústria Brasil-China
Unidade de Apoio às Negociações e Integração Regional
Departamento de Planejamento e Desenvolvimento do Comércio Exterior
Federação e Centro das Indústrias do Estado de São Paulo.
Câmara do Comércio e Indústria Luso-Brasileira
Camara Portuguesa de Comercio no Brasil