São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is a Portuguese-speaking island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.
It consists of two islands, São Tomé and Príncipe, located about 140 kilometres (87 mi) apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres (155 and 140 mi), respectively, off the northwestern coast of Gabon and both are part of an extinct volcanic mountain range.
São Tomé, the sizable southern island, is situated just north of the equator and it was named in honour of Saint Thomas by Portuguese explorers who arrived at the island on his feast day.
With a population of 163,000, São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African country (the Seychelles being the smallest) and is the smallest Portuguese-speaking country.
São Tomé has functioned under a multiparty system since 1990. The president of the republic is elected to a five-year term by direct universal suffrage and a secret ballot, and must gain an outright majority to be elected. The president may hold up to two consecutive terms. The prime minister is named by the president, and the fourteen members of cabinet are chosen by the prime minister.
The National Assembly, the supreme organ of the state and the highest legislative body, is made up of 55 members, who are elected for a four-year term and meet semiannually. Justice is administered at the highest level by the Supreme Court. The judiciary is independent under the current constitution.
At sea level, the climate is tropical—hot and humid with average yearly temperatures of about 27 °C (80.6 °F) and little daily variation. The temperature rarely rises beyond 32 °C (89.6 °F). At the interior’s higher altitudes, the average yearly temperature is 20 °C (68 °F), and nights are generally cool. Annual rainfall varies from 5,000 mm (196.9 in) on the southwestern slopes to 1,000 mm (39.4 in) in the northern lowlands. The rainy season runs from October to May.
Portugal remains one of São Tomé’s major trading partners, particularly as a source of imports. Food, manufactured articles, machinery, and transportation equipment are imported primarily from the EU.
Capital (and largest city) São Tomé
Official language(s) Portuguese
Government Democratic semi-presidential Republic
Independence from Portugal 12 July 1975
Area – 1,001 km2 (372 sq mi)
Currency Dobra (STD)
Time zone UTC (UTC+0)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .st
Calling code 239
|Gross Domestic Product (10^9 USD) in PPP||0.6||0.63||0.66|
|Real Growth Rate (%)||4||4.5||5|
|Gross National Income per capita (USD) in PPP||3,100.00||3,200.00||3,400.00|
|Inflation – annual average (%)||8.3||7||5.5|
|Unemployment rate (%)||13.7||13.5||N.A.|
|Imports (10^6 USD)||118.1||126.2||N.A.|
|Exports (10^6 USD)||11.9||17.4||18.1|
|Exchange rate to the USD||N.A.||145.6||138.7|
|External debt (10^9 USD)||0.214||0.234||N.A.|
|External help per capita (USD)||N.A.||N.A.||N.A.|
|Sources: World Bank|
Jornal de São Tomé
Diário Digital Téla nón